Nutrients & Deficiency Of Nutrients &

It's Effect
Nutrients and deficiency of nutrients and its effect

Nutrition also called nourishment is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary in the form of food to support life.

A healthy diet consisting of proper mutrition can prevent many common health problems.

There are six major classes of nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Minerals
  • Protiens
  • Vitamins &
  • Water

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients or micronutrients

Macronutrients which are needed in relatively large amounts which includes carbohydrates including fiber, fats, protein, and water.

Micronutrients which are needed in smaller quantities which includes minerals and vitamins.

Details of each nutrients and the effects of deficiency are listed below.

A carbohydrate is an organic compound comprising only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1

Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain.

Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively.

Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.

Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy e.g., starch and glycogen. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.

Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.



Starch is digested in two steps:
- First, an enzyme in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks the starch into molecules called maltose;
- An enzyme in the lining of the small intestine (maltase) splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body.

They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, potatoes and other grain-based products. Carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch such as cereals, bread, and pasta or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar found in candy, jams, and desserts.

Fat molecules are a rich source of energy for the body. The bile acids produced by the liver act as natural detergents to dissolve fat in water and allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller molecules, some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol.

Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved.

Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds).

Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.
Vegetable Oil
Vegetable Oil

Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided.

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids—omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids—seems also important for health.

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source

Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions.

Amino acids can be divided into three categories: essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and conditional amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, and must be supplied by food. Non-essential amino acids are made by the body from essential amino acids or in the normal breakdown of proteins. Conditional amino acids are usually not essential, except in times of illness, stress, or for someone challenged with a lifelong medical condition.

Amino acids are found in animal sources such as meats, milk, fish and eggs. Proteins are also available via the plant sources: whole grains, pulses, legumes, soy, fruits, nuts and seeds. Milk and milk-derived foods are also good sources of protein.

Protein deficiency and malnutrition can lead to variety of ailments including mental retardation and kwashiorkor.




Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.

Minerals in order of abundance in the human body include the seven major minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. Important "trace" or minor minerals, necessary for mammalian life, include iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum, iodine, and selenium.

A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health including eating disorders, among many others. Excess levels of some vitamins are also dangerous to health . List of vitamins and their source



Water has always been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans and is essential to the survival of all known organisms. Excluding fat, water composes approximately 70% of the human body by mass. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6–8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. For those who have healthy kidneys, it is somewhat difficult to drink too much water, but especially in warm humid weather and while exercising it is dangerous to drink too little. While overhydration is much less common than dehydration, it is also possible to drink far more water than necessary which can result in water intoxication, a serious and potentially fatal condition.


Change in state of water
Water and it's states
Spheres of the earth
Nutrients & Deficiency Of Nutrients & It's Effect
Interesting Facts About Human Organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Endocannabinoids system
Endocrine system
Excretory system
Integumentary system
Immune system
Lymphatic system
Nervous system
Respiratory system
Musculoskeletal system
Vestibular system

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